Some common networking terms and their meanings.
IPv4 – IP version 4: This is the current networking standard that defines an IP address with a 32-bit address composed of four octects.
IPv6 – IP version 6: A newer standard of IP addressing that will replace the current IPv4. This uses a newer and more efficient header in its packets and allows for 128-bit source and destination addresses. This will allow for many, many more addresses than are available with the 32-bit addressing scheme.
IRC – Internet Relay Chat: A protocol that allows for users running IRC chat software to use text communication in a chat room.
IP telephone: A telephone that is used for VOIP over an IP network. This phone sends and receives only digital signals.
VOIP – Voice Over Internet Protocol: This is a protocol that uses digital signals to send voice communications over an IP network.
UTP – Unshielded Twisted Pair: This is a networking cable type that uses one or more insulated cables in a plastic sheath. This cable type is cheaper, but less resistant to noise than shielded twisted pair cable.
VPN – Virtual Private Network: A private network that can extend over the Internet. This can use encryption and protect the data transferred over that network.
VLAN: a separate network that is created by defining a subnet on an existing network and grouping a few computers within that IP range. This type of network can be separate from other computers outside that subnet.
WPA2 – WIFI Protected Access 2: This is an 802.11a networking standard that uses higher levels of security than other standards like WEP.
ICAAN – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers: This is a non-profit corporation designated by the United States government to maintain and assign Internet Protocol addresses.
HTTP – Hyper Text Protocol: The Application layer protocol that formulates and interprets requests between Web clients and servers. This uses port 80.
HTTPS – Hypertext over Secure Sockets Layer: A URL prefix that indicates that the communication between the server and the client must use SSL encryption for security reasons. This uses port 443.
ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol: A core protocol in the TCP/IP suite that notifies the sender that something went wrong in the package transmission process and packets were not delivered.
FTP – File Transfer Protocol: The protocol that allows transmission of files over TCP/IP. This allows either binary or ASCII transmission. This uses port 23.
SSH – Secure Shell: A connection protocol that allows encrypted connections between a client and a server. This is better than telnet for security reasons. This is commonly used by hosting companies for remote maintenance of the site.
SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol: An application layer protocol in the TCP/IP suite that is meant for conveying data regarding the status of managed devices on the network.
Socket: A logical address that is assigned to a specific process running on a computer. Some sockets are reserved for operating system functions.
SLIP – Serial Line Internet Protocol: This is a communications protocol using a serial connection. SLIP only supports asynchronous communication and IP traffic and has been deprecated by PPP.
PPP – Point to Point Protocol: A communications protocol that enables a workstation to connect to a server using a serial connection. PPP can support multiple Network layer protocols and supports both asynchronous and synchronous connections. Compression and error-checking are performed and this requires little effort in configuration on the client workstation.