This is very easy to do. Simply open a terminal and type:
sudo apt-get install kbd-compat console-terminus
This will install the setfont utility and a nice terminus console font.
To set the desired font, type this command. The fonts will be in /usr/share/consolefonts.
If you want the changes to be permanent, then you may set the console font with this utility. This will allow you to select the console font and size that you want. This is the same on Ubuntu as well. After you have made your choices this will save the changes and regenerate the Initial Ram Disk for the current kernel allowing the changes to be loaded on the next boot.
sudo dpkg-reconfigure console-setup